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爱尔兰财产学论文代写:财政政策

根据Dwivedi(2010年,p . 601),财政政策指的是改变税收、政府支出和借款的模式和水平的政府过程,试图实现各种经济目标的改善,比如就业率、平等和整体经济增长。当这一政策导致总需求的改善时,它被称为扩张性财政政策。这可能是增加支出,减少税收或增加转移。这通常是用来消除经济衰退的缺口(克鲁格曼,Wells和Graddy,2013,pp.452 – 453)。如果政府的财政政策是有效的,那么它的预算赤字必然会下降,反之亦然。
从2003年到2007年,中国经济一直在不断改善,但2008年的全球金融危机导致中国GDP增长下降,失业率上升。2007年的GDP增长率为14.2%,2008年为9.6%(A1),2007年的失业率为4%,2008年为4.2%(A2)。从2003年到2006年,通货膨胀得到了控制,但在经济衰退开始之前,2007年的通货膨胀率也有所上升。随着经济衰退的开始,它在2008年进一步增长(A3)。
为应对经济衰退,中国政府首次实施扩张性财政政策,放宽货币政策,促进经济增长。该政策包括注资4万亿元,为主要领域提供资金,如基础设施建设、低收入住房项目、医疗、教育、节能等领域,为期两年。该政策还包括削减增值税,旨在减轻企业的税收负担,改善投资。2009年,中国的财政赤字为9500亿元,占GDP的比重不到3%(新华网,2009)。

爱尔兰财产学论文代写:财政政策

According to Dwivedi (2010, p.601), fiscal policy refers to the governmental process of changing the pattern and levels of taxation, governmental expenditure and borrowings, in an attempt to achieve improvements in various economic objectives, say, employment rates, equality and overall economic growth. When this policy leads to an improvement in aggregate demand, it is referred to as expansionary fiscal policy. This may be implemented as an increase in expenditure, a decrease in taxes or an increase in transfers. This is generally used to close a recessionary gap (Krugman, Wells and Graddy, 2013, pp.452-453). If the government’s fiscal policy is effective, there must be a fall in its budget deficit and vice versa.
China’s economy has been improving constantly from 2003 to 2007, but the 2008 global financial crisis led to a drop in China’s GDP growth and an increase in unemployment. The GDP growth in 2007 was 14.2%, which fell to 9.6% in 2008 (A1) and the unemployment in 2007 was as low as 4%, which surged to 4.2% in 2008 (A2). Inflation was under control from 2003 to 2006, but it has also surged up in 2007, before the onset of the recession. With the onset of recession, it has increased further in 2008 (A3).
In order to combat the recession, the Chinese government implemented an expansionary fiscal policy for the first time and loosened the monetary policy to boost the economic growth. The policy included an injection of four trillion Yuan, to fund major areas, such as infrastructure construction, low-income housing projects, healthcare, education, energy saving and others over a period of two years. The policy also included cuts in VAT, in an aim to ease tax burden for businesses and improve their investments. China had a fiscal deficit of 950 billion Yuan, accounting for less than 3% of its GDP in 2009 (Xinhuanet, 2009).