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澳洲留学论文怎么写:需求理论

马斯洛提出了最基本的需求理论之一。该理论认为,为了激励某人,必须满足他们5个共同的需求。这些要求,他以等级的形式安排。马斯洛建议,第一个人要满足最低的需求水平(Wahba et al., 1976)。在完成这一过程后,人们会看到满足每一个更高的需求层次,直到满足所有5个需求层次。经过适当的研究,这一理论有一定的缺陷,但马斯洛的需求层次理论仍然是激励员工的一个重要的简化工具。第一个层次是生理需要,包括基本的生存问题。第二是安全需求,包括基于物理和情感的环境的稳定问题。这些包括优势、安全的工作场所和公平工作的实践(Bassett-Jones et al., 2005)。第三层次是归属感的需要。第四和第五是尊重和自我实现。

澳洲留学论文怎么写:需求理论
有很多角度可以批评马斯洛。在他的研究中,他没有提供科学的方法。他更喜欢形成清单。例如,b值列表、自我实现者特征列表、未来人文心理学家的目标列表等。根据研究人员Wahba和Bridwell(1976),对这一理论进行了深入的分析。他们得出的结论是,通过马斯洛提出的等级要求的证据是稀疏的。毫无疑问,所有人都有需求,这需要得到满足,但对每个人都有严格的需求是值得怀疑的(Lundberg et al., 2009)。这一前提是由霍夫斯特德建立的,他认为等级制度已经渗透到民族中心主义中,并基于西方的意识形态。Hofstede还指出,个体的需求层次不是这样的,它可以解释文化社会需要的差异和社会和知识分子的具体需求。Hofstede给出了集体主义和个人主义社会的例子,以说明他的主张。他指出,个人主义社会需要反映自我现状和自我满足的需要。另一方面,一个集体主义性质的社会,对这种结构的接受、归属和社区的关注。

澳洲留学论文怎么写:需求理论

One of the most essential needs theories was provided by Maslow. The theory suggested that in order to motivate someone, it is essential to satisfy their 5 common needs. These requirements, he arranged in the form of hierarchy. It was suggested by Maslow that first people look at satisfying the lowest needs level (Wahba et al., 1976). After the completion of this, people look at satisfying each higher need level until all the 5 needs levels are satisfied. Upon proper research, it becomes evident that there are certain drawbacks of this theory, but the needs hierarchy theory of Maslow remains an essential and simplified tool to motivate employees by managers. The first level is physiological need consisting of basic survival problems. The second is security needs, consisting of stable issues of physical and emotion based environment. These consist of advantages, safe workplace and practices of fair work (Bassett-Jones et al., 2005). The third level is the need for belonging. The fourth and fifth are esteem and self-actualization.

澳洲留学论文怎么写:需求理论
There are many angles from which Maslow can be criticized. He did not provide a scientific method within his research. He had more preference for forming lists. For example, B-value lists, self-actualizers featured list, future humanistic psychologist’s objectives lists etc. According to researchers, Wahba and Bridwell (1976), an in-depth review of this theory was analysed. It was concluded by them that the hierarchical needs order evidence proposed through Maslow has sparsity. There is no doubt that all people have needs and this need to be met with but the presence of a rigid needs order for each people is doubtful (Lundberg et al., 2009). This premise was built over by Hofstede and it was asserted by him that the hierarchy has been steeped within ethnocentricity and has its basis over the ideology of West. Hofstede additionally stated that the needs hierarchy individually is not such that it could account for the cultural society needs differences and their specific needs of social and intellectual. The example of collectivist and individualistic society has been given by Hofstede for illustration of his assertion. He stated that the individualistic society needs reflect the self-actuality and self-fulfilment needs. A society of collectivist nature on the other hand has a focus over acceptance, belonging and community across such structure.