Assignment First


  在20世纪70年代早期,全面性被发明了,残疾儿童被安置在通用的教室和教育环境中,而不是在孤立的教室里学习。然而,一些声音提出,有特殊需要的儿童不像其他发达个体一样是一般社区的一部分(Winter, 2007)。因此,许多关于归属感的争论开始了。有发育迟缓或有特殊需要的儿童是否有权利接受公正的教育一直受到争议。一些人认为,他们应该享有与同龄人同等的接受平等教育的公民权利(Winter, 2007)。不久,一个新的概念,即包容出现了。纳入是重要的,因为它把需要特殊教育服务的儿童安置在教育环境和机构中,如果他们的发展遵循一种没有残疾的特色模式(Winter, 2007)。在今天的教育中,包容更多地成为一种哲学立场,为不同群体的孩子提供不同的能力。无论如何,为了实现所有儿童享有公平教育的权利,包容是教育所有儿童的基本和负责任的要求(Winter, 2007)。


  残疾医学模式和残疾社会模式是儿童特殊教育的两个基本组成部分。医学模式是一种最常见的特殊需要。它是关于什么是丧失行为能力的意义,什么策略和做法是适合有特殊需要的儿童(卡灵顿&麦克阿瑟,2012)。医学模型将残疾视为一种疾病或与普通身体或精神的区别(Carrington & MacArthur, 2012)。这意味着需要在教育机构和特殊环境中处理、控制或保护这些差异。通过残障社会模式的一部分,残障维权人士正在将残障印象转变为自决和人权的政治问题(Carrington & MacArthur, 2012)。他们强调残疾不应该被视为缺陷,而应该被视为社会隔离、歧视和压制的根源(Carrington & MacArthur, 2012)。残障人士作为一个小群体受到非残障人士多数人的政策压制。根据新西兰残疾战略,“残疾是一群人通过为他们的生活方式设计一个世界来制造障碍的过程”(Carrington & MacArthur, 2012,第71页)。有特殊需要的人将在经济、社会和文化资源方面得到录取。重要的是,我们必须积极促进在教育环境中的包容性,并关注社会和政治背景下的残疾意识,以实现人人享有人权(Carrington & MacArthur, 2012)。


  In the early period of 1970s, the comprehensiveness was invented and the children with disabilities were placed into the universal classrooms and educational settings instead of studying in isolated classrooms. However, some voices proposed that children with special needs are not part of the general communities like other developed individuals (Winter, 2007). Therefore, many arguments about belongingness got started. Whether the children with developing postponements or special needs can have the rights to receive impartial education have been contended. Some argued that they should be provided with the same civil rights for receiving equitable education as their peers (Winter, 2007). Soon, a new concept, namely, inclusion came out. Inclusion is significant in that it places children who need special education services in educational setting and institutions, if their development had followed a characteristic mode with no disability (Winter, 2007). Associated with the education today, inclusion becomes more as a philosophical position in the direction of providing various groups of children with different range of abilities. In any case, to achieve the rights of fair education for all children, inclusion is a basic and responsible requirement to teach all children (Winter, 2007).

  Models of inclusion

  Additionally, the medical model of disability and social model of disability are two basic parts of special education for children. Medical model is a most common sense of special needs. It is about what the meaning to be incapacitated and what strategies and practices are appropriate for children with special needs (Carrington & MacArthur, 2012). The medical model treats disability as a disease or the differences compared to an ordinary body or mind (Carrington & MacArthur, 2012). This means that the differences need to be treated, controlled or protected in education institutions and special settings. By the part of social model of disability, the disability activists are changing the impression of disability into a political issue of self-determination and human rights (Carrington & MacArthur, 2012). They emphasize that disability should not be treated as deficiency but as the origin of social segregation, discrimination and suppression (Carrington & MacArthur, 2012). The disabled as a small group are suppressed by policies from non-disabled majority. According to New Zealand disability strategy, “disability is the process which happened when one group of people create barriers by designing a world only for their way of living” (Carrington & MacArthur, 2012, p. 71). The people with special needs will have their admission on the aspects of economical, social and cultural resources. It is important to say that we must actively promote inclusion in education settings and focus on the awareness of disability under the social and political context in order to achieve the human rights for everyone (Carrington & MacArthur, 2012).