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加拿大蒙特利尔大学论文代写:消费税

消费税是对所有商品和服务征收的间接税(科奇勒,2007,p.9)。当政府增加消费税,企业会把这个税收的消费者进行商品和服务的价格上升。这将抑制低收入消费者的消费,从而降低总需求的消费成分。所以,在短期内,这将导致总需求左移。然而,由于消费税是一种收入来源的政府,这将增加政府购买,因此这将移回的总需求,其原有的或更高一级的。因此,总需求将有积极的变化,从长远来看。第一个图对应于短运行和第二个长期运行。
汇率决定价格,国人支付进口和国产品和服务的外国人的价格,从而控制资产的国际流动(甘伯和滤器,2006,第46页)。这个比率的任何变化都影响净出口组件。随着货币升值(升值),外国人为国家的商品支付更高,当地人支付较低的进口。因此,在短期内,将有净出口值的净增加,因此总需求的增加,从而改变了曲线的权利。
然而,从长远来看,如果货物昂贵,出口将减少,进口将增加在国际水平。因此,净出口将减少,总需求曲线向左移动。由于进口资源价格较低,当地企业可以提供较低的价格,因此销售将增加,从而提高了消费成分和增加总需求。较低的资源价格将降低生产成本,因此将在总供给曲线上升,但在短期内(总供给的决定因素,n.d.)。

加拿大蒙特利尔大学论文代写:消费税

GST is one of the indirect regressive taxes imposed on all goods and services (Kirchler, 2007, p.9). When the government increases GST, the firms will pass on this taxation to consumers through an increase in the price of goods and services. This will discourage spending of the low-income consumers, thus lowering the consumption component of aggregate demand. So in the short-term, this will lead to a leftward shift in aggregate demand. However, since GST is one of the income sources to the government, this will boost government purchases and hence this will shift back the aggregate demand to its original or even a higher level. So there will be positive change in aggregate demand in the long run. The first graph corresponds to the short run and the second to the long run.
Exchange rates determine the prices that the country’s people pay for imports and the prices of the country’s products and services to foreigners, thus controlling the international flow of assets (Gamber and Colander, 2006, p.46). Any change in this rate impacts the net exports component. As the value of a currency increases (appreciates), the foreigners pay higher for the country’s goods and the locals pay lower for imports. Thus in the short run, there will be a net increase in net export value and hence an increase in the aggregate demand, thus shifting the curve right.
However in the long run, if the goods are expensive, exports will decrease and imports will increase in the international level. So the net exports will decrease, shifting the aggregate demand curve left. Since prices of imported resources are lower, the local businesses may offer at lower prices and hence sales will increase, thus improving the consumption component and increasing aggregate demand. Lower resource price will decrease production cost and hence there will be an increase in the aggregate supply curve, but in the short-run (Aggregate supply determinants, n.d.).