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留学生代写:玛丽·道格拉斯的原始文化社会学

“一个人的避脏行为中没有什么不合理的恐惧;它是一个创造性的运动,试图将形式与功能联系起来,使体验统一。”(道格拉斯,1984)

这句话的推论是,在一个有秩序的社会里,是有规章制度的。人们知道如何在城市环境中表现自己。原始文化指的是无序,原始社会的行为就像秩序的传染。原始文化重视伦理崇拜、社会价值观和超自然现象。某些基本方面比清洁行动更为重要。一些对社会有益的行为被认为是亵渎和恶魔的(道格拉斯1984)。从这一点可以理解,一个应该与另一个分开。这意味着文化、价值观和道德规范决定了社会对肮脏的理解。

Douglas(1984)指的是人类学家和宗教历史学家,如Robertson Smith,他用旧约和新约的类比来比较原始文化和文明文化之间的差异。这表明前者更优越,因为其伦理成分的空间分布和秩序是与神的个人关系。这一结论表明,人们应该考虑有序社会更优越(Durham 2006, p1)。道格拉斯(1984)对这一相当狭隘的观点提出了相反的观点,认为宗教不能仅仅基于对精神存在的研究来理解。它需要对人们对人类命运的看法进行评估。如果在研究其他文化中的污垢概念之前先研究其自身范围内的传染现象,那么对这个文明社会的贡献将会更大。

有人建议,玛丽·道格拉斯的文本可以扩展到宗教讨论之外的更广泛的社会对不同文化的宽容。从人类学的角度来看,道格拉斯的话语突出了社会内部在宗教和文化方面的冲突和紧张。这表明,缺乏理解造成了社会内部的紧张局势。个人和群体之所以具有优越感,很大程度上是因为他们无法理解其他群体的信仰和理想。它还暗示了对社会秩序的渴望,在那里“信仰加强社会压力”(道格拉斯1984,p.3),而不是原始文化的意识形态。


留学生代写 :玛丽·道格拉斯的原始文化社会学

‘’There is nothing unreasonable of fearful in a person’s dirt-avoidance; it is a creative movement, an attempt to relate form to function, to make unity of experience. ‘’ (Douglas, 1984)
The inferences of this statement are that in an ordered society, there are rules and regulations. People are aware of how to behave in the urban environment. Primitive culture refers to the disorder, primitive societies act like a contagion to order. Primitive cultures gave importance to the ethical cult, societal values and the paranormal aspects. Certain fundamental aspects were given more importance rather than acts of cleaning. Some acts of welfare to the society were considered to be sacrilegious and demonic (Douglas 1984). From this it is understood that one should be separated from the other. This implies that cultures, values and morals define how dirt was construed in the society.
Douglas (1984) refers to anthropologists and religious historians such Robertson Smith who compared the differences between primitive and civilized cultures using the analogy of Old Testament and New Testament. This suggested that the former were superior because of the ethical components of spatial distribution and order to be a personal relationship with the divine. This concludes that people should consider ordered society to be superior (Durham 2006, p1). Douglas (1984) provides a counter argument to this rather narrow view suggesting that religion cannot be understood on the basis of the study of spiritual beings alone. It requires an assessment of people’s ideas on the destiny of humanity. Adding to this civilized society would learn more if it studied contagion within its own boundaries before studying dirt concept in other cultures.
It is suggested that Mary Douglas’s text can be expanded outside of the discussion of religion to the wider context of tolerance in society to different cultures. From an anthropological point of view, Douglas’s discourse highlights the conflict and tensions within society in respect of religion and culture. This points to that the lack of understanding creates tensions within society. Individuals and groups assume superiority largely due to a failure to understand the beliefs and ideals of other groups. It also hints at the desire for social order where “beliefs reinforce social pressures” (Douglas 1984, p.3) as opposed to ideology of the primitive culture.