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论文辅导:20世纪初加州的经济状况

1848年,墨西哥、新墨西哥州、内华达州、加利福尼亚州、亚利桑那州和乌塔被瓜达卢佩伊达尔戈条约纳入美国版图。中国劳工被带到美国边境来满足劳动力需求。随着新铁路的建设,这些中国移民被用于渔业和农业。这些移民在萨克拉门托-圣华金河三角洲的沼泽地里耕种,发展渔业。中国人最初受到欢迎,但许多人认为他们是种族、经济甚至是对他们生命的道德威胁。中国是一个贫穷的国家,到处都是人类的遗骸。他们的文化和种族差异使他们成为美国人的威胁。这些中国移民甚至被认为是罪恶深重、道德败坏的人,满身污垢、疾病缠身,被认为不适合成为美国公民。

到1852年,华人约占加州劳工的25%(高木,第79页)。随着他们人数的增加,他们被困在白人劳工中间,为争取更好的工作条件而奋斗。内战后,这个国家陷入经济衰退,导致19世纪70年代失业。由于工作机会匮乏,白人劳工、工厂工人、矿工和田间工人开始反华运动。主要的角色由工人党扮演,这是一个爱尔兰劳工组织。他们发起了许多“中国人必须去”的运动。雇员们认为,这种分工应该继续下去,使劳工不能联合起来要求改善工作环境。雇主还制定了双重工资制度,亚洲劳工的工资低于其他族裔工人(Takaki, 1989)。

中国人常常不得不面对反华行为、人身攻击和针对他们的法律(Courtney, 1956)。因此,中国人的经历是美国种族如何形成阶级差异的一个例证。为了抗议中国工人在雪茄行业的就业,萨克拉门托一家雪茄制造公司在1879年的州博览会上制作了一个特殊的“白色标签”,以引起公众的注意。为了“保护自由的白人劳动力不受中国人的竞争”(Takaki, 1989),中国人民也不得不交税。正如一首诗所言,中国移民清楚地看到,他们受到的压迫不仅是经济上的,也是种族上的:

“我们中国人被拘留在这座木结构建筑里,我感到很难过。

事实上,正是种族障碍给瀛台岛带来了困难”(Nelson, 2000)。


论文辅导 :20世纪初加州的经济状况

Post war of Mexico, New Mexico, Nevada, California, Arizona, and Utha were included in the United States by the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848. The Chinese labour was brought to fulfil labour demand at the America’s frontier. Along with constructing the new railroad, these Chinese immigrants were used at fishing and agriculture industries. These immigrants cultivated the swamp in Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta and developed fisheries. Chinese were welcomed initially but many people saw them as the racial, economical and even as moral threat to their lives. China was a poor country, which was populated by the remains of humanity. Their cultural and racial difference set them as a threat to Americans. These Chinese immigrants were even stereotypes as the vice ridden and immoral people who were full of dirt and diseases and were considered unfit to become the citizens of United States.
By the year 1852, Chinese represented about 25% labour of California (Takaki, p.79). As they grew in number, they were trapped between the white labour and struggled for better working conditions. After the civil war, the country was trapped by the recession which led to unemployment in 1870’s. Due to the job scarcity, the white labour, factory workers, miners and field hands, started anti-Chinese movements. The major role was played by the Workingmen’s Party, which was an Irish labour group. They started many “Chinese must go” campaigns. The employees believed that this labour division should persist so that labour could not join together to demand for improved working environment. The employers also made a dual wage system, where the Asian labour was paid less than other ethnic workers (Takaki, 1989).
Often Chinese had to face the anti-Chinese behaviour, physical assaults and laws against them (Courtney, 1956). Thus the experience of Chinese is an illustration of how race can form the difference of class differences in United States. To protest against the employment of Chinese labour in the cigar industry, a cigar making company Sacramento’s made a special “white label” to gain the attention of public in State Fair of 1879. The Chinese people also had to pay the tax to “protect free white labour against competition with Chinese” (Takaki, 1989). The Chinese immigrants clearly witnessed that their oppression was racial as well as economic, as one poem notes:
“I am distressed that we Chinese are detained in this wooden building.
It is actually racial barriers which cause difficulties on Yingtai Island” (Nelson, 2000).