Astronomy or Astronomical Sciences is the field that is involved here. Astronomy is the science of the stars, the planets and the deep space. It is the field that allowed scientists to observe what is above the earth and in deep space, before it was only through earth telescopes that people were able to observe the stars and planets. Astronomy has a history compared to other sciences also. The scientific revolution of the 16th and the 17th century was seen to introduce many changes in this field, some of the insights offered by scientists such as Copernicus, Brahe, Galileo and Copernicus came to be accepted and some came to be questioned. There are many fields under astronomy and each one is a specialization by itself.
For instance there is planetary astronomy where people would study the planets, the different planets that exist in the solar system, how they co-exist, what are the atmosphere and other aspects of the planet etc. Stellar astronomy on the other hand will be the study of the stars. This is a research that enables astronomers to study about the creation and the destruction of the stars. Some of the questions that the astronomer seeks to answer are much like the answers sought with the Cepheid variables, such as when the planets or galaxies are formed, the distance between planets etc.