Assignment First


被称为政治现实主义的传统是有着悠久的历史,可以追溯到典型的希腊伟大的历史学家自公元前第五世纪。即使有了支配的态度变化表现出对现实主义取向和基于现实主义的争论一直集中在西方的理论和实践涉及国际关系(Baylis &欧文斯,2011)。在最具体的意义上,新的国际社会,无论是从马基雅维利时代的第十六世纪,还是从时代的霍布斯。

国际理论与现实之间的关系已经明确自第二十世纪强盛(贝尔,2010)。国际关系的第一次出现是在第一次世界大战结束之前和之后的学术纪律中发生的,这是反对现实主义对权力政治平衡的主要反应。有进一步的纪律不久之前和现实派自二战结束后重新确定如Hans Morgenthau和E. H. Carr。针对二战后时代的大多数,现实主义是一种主导范式在盎格鲁美国人专注于国际关系研究(贝尔,2009)。即使在冷战后的时代,涉及全球化,现实主义似乎仍然提供了一个动机和背景下,在这个特定领域的一些重大的理论辩论和争论。




The tradition being followed for political realism is known to be having a long history that can be traced back typically to the great historians of Greece since the fifth century BC. Even though there have been variations in the dominating attitude showed towards realism, orientations and arguments based on realism have been centralized with the westernized theory and practices related to international relations (Baylis& Owens, 2011). In the most specific sense, the new international society, whether considering from the age of Machiavelli from the sixteenth century, or the era of Hobbes within the seventeenth century.

The relation between international theory and realism had specifically become strong since the twentieth century (Behr, 2010). The first emergence of international relations took place as the academic discipline prior to and soon after the end of World War I. This had been a major reaction against the balance of realism over the politics of power. There had further been reshaping of discipline soon prior to and after the end of World War II by realists who were self- identified such as Hans Morgenthau and E. H. Carr. For majority of the post era of World War II, realism is known to be a dominating paradigm in the study of Anglo- Americans focusing on international relations (Behr, 2009). Even in the post era of Cold War involving globalization, realism still seemed to be providing a motivation and context for a number of significant theoretical debates and arguments within this particular field.

From this perspective, it becomes important for exploring some of the main concepts of realism providing evidence from the current situation of international relations.

The balance maintained in power extracted from the concept related to power is known to be the centralized component of realism that appears to be workable and valid until the current situation (Fitzpatrick, 2012). There is no difficulty in retracing this series of events considering Europe as the point to start. After the war of thirty year, the treaty of Westphalia had been signed. The Congress had been developed in Vienna after the Wars of Napoleons. The order of world had been established after the War of France and Prussians that lead towards a unified, strong Germany. The world order between Versailles and Washington after the occurrence of World War I, and the world order between Yalta and Potsdam after the occurrence of World War II had been established (Gustafson, 2000). All of these provide evidence for the impact of realism on the international relations as it resulted in expanding and widening the area and scope of international relations.