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推荐信代写:定性和定量研究方法

人类学作为一门学科是很难量化的。因此,有不同的方法可以遵循来理解人口统计数据和推断社会。有一些工具可以用来得出结论,这些工具可以是基于数值分析或定量技术或定性技术,如焦点小组讨论或对话。每种方法都有其优缺点。然而,最好的方法总是这两种方法的谨慎组合。一些流行的量化方法是(L3:S6):

横断面研究:通常是对某一组人口进行抽样调查。然而,重复使用这类研究可以帮助获得某些特征的有用趋势。

受控现场研究/准实验:这些实验通常在预先设定的环境中进行,适合为非常具体的问题生成答案。这些在受控设置中进行。因此,选择样本进行研究和理解独立变量和因变量是很重要的。

另一方面,一些常见的定性技术包括:

案例研究:该方法可用于民族志和非民族志群体。但是,这只使用一个特定的单位作进一步的调查和分析

叙事:这种技术包括编织故事和片段,从中提取信息,并用于分析社会的特定特征

压缩民族志研究设计:这种方法使用焦点小组访谈或焦点小组讨论,就社会的某些问题得出貌似合理的结论。

参与性行动研究:这是指与整个社区合作,以确定和解决问题。

除了上述的传统方法,甚至艺术和诗歌也可以被认为是一个社会问题的窗口。然而,在所有这些技术和方法中,我们首先需要问自己研究的最终目标或产出。只有这样,我们才有能力创建一个合适的框架,让我们从数据分析中获得答案。


推荐信代写 :定性和定量研究方法

Anthropology, as a subject can be very difficult to quantify. So, there are different approaches which can be followed to understand the demographics and draw inferences on societies. There are several tools which can be deployed to arrive at conclusions and these can be either based on numerical analysis or quantitative techniques or qualitative techniques such as focus group discussions or dialogue. Each of the approaches has their own pros and cons. However, the best approach is always a prudent mix of both the approaches. Some of the popular quantitative approaches are (L3:S6):
Cross Sectional Research: These are generally sample surveys on a certain set of population. However, repeated use of this type of research can help in garnering a useful trend of certain characteristics.
Controlled field studies/Quasi-experiments: These experiments are done generally in a pre-set environment suitable for generating answers to very specific questions. These are carried across in controlled settings. Thus it is important to select the sample for study and the understanding of independent and the dependent variables.
Some of the common qualitative techniques on the other side involve:
Case studies: This methodology can be used for ethnographic and non-ethnographic groups. However, this uses only a specific unit for further investigation and analysis
Narratives: This technique includes weaving stories and snippets from which information can be extracted and used for analysis of a certain characteristic of a society
Compressed ethnographic research designs: This methodology uses focus group interviews or focus group discussions to arrive at a plausible conclusion on certain problems of the society.
Participatory Action Research: This refers to working with the whole community to identify and fix problems.
Apart from the conventional approaches mentioned above, even art and poetry can be considered as windows to the issues with a certain society. However, in all these techniques and methodologies, we need to first ask ourselves the end goal or the output of the research. Only then, we would be well-equipped to create a proper framework for us to obtain answers from data analysis.