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学术论文代写:德国调整的人力资源政策和培训

在德国,多雇主集体谈判仍占德国企业员工总数的80%以上。这表明,在德国,雇员的雇用条件、工作条件和薪金是根据德国劳资关系制度规定的准则高度标准化的。通过各种调查也发现,在最初的职业培训中,近5%的德国劳动力参加了培训(Kaas, and Manger, 2012, p.16)。德国最初的职业培训受到包括工会、雇主组织和国家在内的三方制度的管制和管理。这种三位一体的制度也有助于减少组织的自主性。这是由于德国模式对引进人力资源实践趋同的压力过大的制度环境造成的。

德国劳动力市场机构施加的集体压力与人力资源管理的一元论思想之间可能会产生潜在的文化冲突(Mitlacher, 2008, p.450)。如果德国的企业满足了德国市场机构的要求,那么企业必须遵循什么样的人力资源管理方法就会产生问题。由于管理方式的多元化,为了实现人力资源管理的各种结果,即员工承诺、灵活性、生产质量和战略整合,必须使用一种与德国商业模式相适应的人力资源管理方法。

In Germany, the multi-employer collective bargaining are still more than 80% of the employees of German companies. This states that the terms of employment, working conditions and salaries of employees in Germany are highly standardized according to the guidelines specified under the German system of industrial relations. It is also observed through various surveys that in the initial vocational training, nearly 5% of the workforce of Germany takes part (Kaas, and Manger, 2012, p.16). The initial vocational training in Germany is regulated and governed by the tripartite system that includes trade unions, organizations of employers and the state. This tripartite system also helps in the reduction of the organizational autonomy. This is due to the excessively strong institutional environment that the German model exerts pressure for the introduction of the convergence of the human resource practices in Germany.
Potential cultural clashes may arise between the collective pressures applied by the labor market institutions of Germany and unitarist ideology of HRM (Mitlacher, 2008, p.450). In case if the companies in Germany fulfill the requirements of the market institutions of Germany, then a question arises about what approach of HRM must be followed by the companies. With the pluralist style of management, one of the HRM approach must be used that is compatible with the German business style for achieving the various outcomes of HRM i.e. employee commitment, flexibility, production quality and strategic integration.


学术论文代写 :德国调整的人力资源政策和培训

多元化的人力资源管理模式是在德国企业制度的推动下发展起来的。在“多元人力资源管理”中,高劳资关系优先级与高人力资源管理优先级相结合(Georgellis, and Lange, 2007, p.972)。德国模型中用来证明工会主义与人力资源管理相容的各种术语有:激励能力模型、新现实主义、互惠主义和实用主义折衷主义等。根据在英国进行的调查,我们注意到,由于工会的存在,人力资源管理技术的引进在该国受到了积极的影响。因此,如果在德国实行这种做法,预计将会产生更积极的结果。正是由于德国商业体系中劳资关系的合作化,德国企业的员工对企业和工会表现出双重的承诺。这一点可以通过对德国电子行业工人进行的比较研究得到很好的解释。

The development of the pluralist style of HR management is fostered by the German business system. In the “pluralist HRM”, the high industrial relations priority and high HRM priority are combined (Georgellis, and Lange, 2007, p.972). The various terms used in German model for proving the compatibility between the trade unionism and HRM are the motivated competence model, the new realism, mutuality and the pragmatic eclecticism etc. According to the surveys conducted in U.K., it is observed that the introduction of HRM techniques in the country is positively impacted because of the presence of trade unions. Therefore, it is expected that if such practices are applied in Germany, they will provide more positive results. It is due to the co-operative style of industrial relations in the German business system that the employees of German companies show a dual commitment towards the company and the trade union. This was well explained by the example of the comparative study conducted on the electronics industry workers that showed co-existence between the HRM and unions in Germany.