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英国毕业论文格式:宇宙研究的重大成就

当一个人眺望太空时,他会回顾过去(达文波特,1994)。从宇宙中遥远的物体到达我们所在位置的光,是在数十亿年前离开那些特定物体的光,因此我们可以像过去那样观察它们。

最遥远的星系看起来很奇怪,它是不规则的,更小,没有一个明确的形状。在哈勃之前,这些遥远的星系没有被任何望远镜观测到(Dorner 1996)。好奇的天文学家们把哈勃望远镜打开,让它进入一片空旷的天空,吸收宇宙中10天的所有光线。从哈勃望远镜进行观测只需要几个小时,而花在它上面的时间本可以用来发现其他一些需要。

正是因为有了像GOODS和HUDF这样的调查,科学家们才有机会仔细观察这些深邃浩瀚的星系群。这包括一些自宇宙诞生10亿年以来就存在的星系。

在这些图像的帮助下,可以跟踪宇宙的发展。正是在这些图像中,宇航员能够更近距离地观察星系合并和成长过程中发生的各种碰撞和星系间的相互作用。在这些图像的深处,我们今天所知道的巨大而庄严的星系是可见的。

An individual looks back in time when one looks out at space (Davenport 1994). The light which arrives at our location from the object far away in the universe is the light which left those specific objects about billions of years ago, hence one observe it as they were seen in the past.
The galaxies which are most distant appear to be quite strange like, it is irregular, smaller and does not have a clearly defined shape. These distant galaxies were not observed by any of the telescope before the Hubble (Dorner 1996). The Hubble was turned up by the intrigued astronomers into the empty patch of sky to soak all the light for 10 days from the universe. It only takes a few hours to make observations from Hubble and the time spent on it could have been used in finding out some other needs.
It is because of the surveys like GOODS and HUDF which have rendered the scientists an opportunity to have a good look at the deep, vast collections of galaxies. This includes some galaxies which were there since the time universe was one billion years old.
The development of the universe could be followed with the help of these images. It is in these images that the astronauts were able to have a closer look into various collisions and galaxy interactions as the galaxies merge and grow. Deep into these images, the large and stately galaxies which one knows today were visible.


英国毕业论文格式 :宇宙研究的重大成就

正是由于对宇宙的研究,人们才能够知道,自从大爆炸开始以来,宇宙一直在膨胀(Senders 1991)。因此,如果科学家能够测量膨胀的速度和它的大小,那么人们就可能得到宇宙的实际年龄。我们应该关注这样一个事实:测量宇宙的实际年龄并不那么容易;只有通过研究天空中物体的亮度,我们才能做到这一点。在天文学家发现哈勃之前,宇宙的年龄被缩小到只有100 – 200亿年;考虑到100亿年的时间跨度,这不是一个很好的测量方法(Chaisson 1995)。不仅仅是出于好奇,知道宇宙的年龄是至关重要的。通过了解星系和恒星发展的时间尺度,它可以帮助科学家们完善宇宙万物和宇宙本身是如何形成的模型。

宇宙研究的另一项重大成就是,天文学家能够追踪到一些典型宇宙物体的无线电波来源。这些天体包括遥远的星系、超新星和强大的恒星诞生区。然而,有一个特定的物体似乎只是一个光点。对同一物体的深入观察表明,这些特殊的物体是相当遥远的。经过仔细观察,得出的结论是,它们是遥远星系的明亮中心,被称为类星体。

空间探索的另一个额外好处是它涉及国际合作;正是由于全球合作,大型项目才得以实施。一旦来自不同国家的志趣相投的人们聚在一起,那么最终的结果就是分享新技术和进步(Senders 1991)。一旦所有国家都能获得先进的技术,那么它就有助于各种太空探索任务的可能性,从而进一步阐明不同星球上的生存可能性。与此同时,我们必须考虑这样一个事实:地球上总有可能发生一些破坏性的事情,它们可能改变生命的进程。因此,从人类长期生存的角度来看,这些探索有助于人类物种的生存。因此,可以说,太空望远镜的发现也帮助人类对宇宙整体有了一个全新的认识。各种各样的望远镜的发现已经能够帮助人类超越宇宙中显而易见的方面。这使科学家们了解了宇宙的各个方面,这是超出了正常人类的认知。

It is because of the study of the universe that one is able to know about the fact that since the initiation of Big Bang, the universe has been expanding (Senders 1991). Thus, if the scientists could measure the rate of expansion and the size of it then one might be able to get the actual age of the universe. One should focus on the fact that it is not that easy to measure the actual age of the universe; it is only by studying the brightness of the objects in the sky that we could do that. The age of universe was narrowed down to only 10-20 billion years old before the advent of Hubble by the astronomers; which is not a very good measurement taking into consideration the leeway of 10 billion years (Chaisson 1995). It is not just for the sake of curiosity that knowing the age of universe is crucial. It could help the scientists to refine the models of how everything in the universe and the universe itself was formed by knowing the time scale for the development of galaxies and stars.
Another major achievement by the study of universe is that the astronomers were able to track radio waves which were sources to some typical cosmic objects. These objects included distant galaxies, supernovae and powerful regions of star birth. However, there was one specific object which appeared to be just a mere point of light. A deep observation into the same showed that these particular objects were quite distant. After careful observation, it was concluded that they were the bright centers of the far-away galaxies and were known as quasars.
Another added benefit of space exploration is that it involves international collaboration; it is because of the global collaboration that large projects are conducted. Once the like-minded people from various nations get together, then the ultimate end result of the same is sharing of new technology and advancements (Senders 1991). Once all the nations have access to the advanced technology, then it helps the possibilities of various space exploration missions which could further put on light regarding the survival possibilities on different planets. At the same time, one must consider the fact that there is always a chance of something destructive happening on earth which could change the course of life. Thus, looking from the view point of the long term survival of the humanity, these explorations are helpful for the survival of the human species. Thus, it could be said that the discovery of space telescope has helped the humankind to have a fresh perceptive about the universe as a whole to the common people as well. Various kinds of telescopes discovered have been able to help the humankind to get above the obvious aspects of the universe. This has made the scientists know about various aspects of universe which was beyond the recognition of the normal humankind.