Globalization refers to the process of integration across societies and economies. The phenomenon encompasses the flow of products, services, labor, finance, information, and ideas moving across national borders. The frequency and intensity of the flows relate to the upward or downward direction of globalization as a trend.
There is no evidence for globalisation, that is, of a system of free trade with fullyintegrated world markets. Instead the evidence on the performance and activities ofmultinational enterprises demonstrates that international business is triad-based andtriad-related . . . European, North American and Asian manufacturing and servicecompanies compete viciously for market share, lobbying their governments for shelter and subsidies.
There is a popular notion that there has been an increase of globalization since the early 1980s. However, a comparison of the period between 1870 and 1914 to the post-World War II era indicates a greater degree of globalization in the earlier part of the century than the latter half. This is true in regards to international trade growth and capital flows, as well as migration of people to America.
If a perspective starts after 1945—at the start of the Cold War—globalization is a growing trend with a predominance of global economic integration that leads to greater interdependence among nations. Between 1990 and 2001, total output of export and import of goods as a proportion of GDP rose from 32.3 percent to 37.9 percent in developed countries and 33.8 percent to 48.9 percent for low- to middle-income countries. From 1990 to 2003, international trade export rose by $3.4 to $7.3 trillion (see Figure 1). Hence, the general direction of globalization is growth that is unevenly distributed between wealthier and poorer countries.