Assignment First

英国东亚和南亚研究论文代写:技术风险和外部风险

技术风险——项目是一个工程项目,需要集成和交付许多复杂的目标。由于所涉及的工程产品的所有移动和固定都来自于计划,所以这类风险的选择是高估和低估。过高估计是对项目及其资源的使用或效果的错误预期。假设,隧道制造所需的原材料估计比实际所需的要多,那么项目、承包商和政府可能会出现成本超支。这破坏了承包商的意图和各国政府的参与,它们一起无法避免这一问题。当项目管理人员将项目建立在弱估计的基础上时,如交通量低、线路利用率低、对环境的破坏较小等,就会产生低估。这些都是真诚的技术错误,会影响项目的效率和有效实施。承包商和政府之间可能会产生支付冲突,甚至市民会强烈反对为该项目使用超出预期的货币资金。


英国东亚和南亚研究论文代写 :技术风险和外部风险

外部风险——外部风险可能是一种不可控制的类型,其中之一是市场经济状况不佳。该项目依赖于有利的市场条件,因为它确保其财务、分包商和按预期价值购买资源。当市场状况突然恶化时,会立即影响资金的可得性和市场情绪,市场情绪明显下降(Wang et al., 2004)。这可能会给项目带来财务困难,导致最后期限的延迟和信心的丧失。这种风险出乎意料,但影响巨大,2008年至2009年的全球金融危机就证明了这一点。这场危机本来是可以预料到的,但它对发展中经济体的影响程度却没有得到假设。


英国东亚和南亚研究论文代写 :技术风险和外部风险

Technical risk – The project is an engineering project and involves numerous complexities to integrate and deliver the objective. Since, all movement and fixing of engineering products involved comes from planning, the risk chosen in this category is that of overestimation and underestimation. Overestimation is the false anticipation of the use or effect of the project and its resources. Suppose, the raw materials required for the tunnel manufacturing is estimated to be more than actually required, there may be a cost overrun for the project, the contractor, and government. This spoils the intent of the contractor and the governments’ involvement, which together are not able to ward of such an issue. Underestimation could arise when the project management builds the project on weak estimation, such as low traffic flow and usage of the route and an assessment proving less damage to the environment. These are sincere technical errors and can spoil the projects efficiency and effective implementation. There may be payment conflict arising between the contractor and the government, and even a backlash from citizens for using more-than-anticipated monetary funds for the project.


英国东亚和南亚研究论文代写 :技术风险和外部风险

External risk – External risk may be of an uncontrollable type, one of which is that of the poor economic condition of the market. The project depends on favourable market conditions, for it secures its finances, sub-contractors, and purchase resources at an anticipated value. When market condition suddenly deteriorates, it immediately affects the availability of finance and the market sentiment, which apparently declines (Wang et al., 2004). This can cause financial woes for the project, causing delayed deadlines and loss of confidence. Such a risk is unexpected yet impactful, evident by the global financial crisis of 2008-09 that might have been anticipated but its extent of dent in developing economies was not assumed.