Assignment First


地震本质上是发生的,不受控制,不能通过人为干预来阻止。这些与地层埋藏的地质历史事件有关。有一些地球表面缺陷的证据,可以通过野外专家(地质学家)来实现,而一些证据在地表下数百公里处仍然是不可见的,而这正是地震最可能发生的地方。 (英国地质调查局,2014年)
英国地震的因素尚不透明,但是,地震发生背后的主要原因被认为是构造板块的运动,并且由于覆盖英国许多地区约1000多年的冰盖融化而造成的抬升背部。 (英国地质调查局,2014年)



Reasoning the earthquakes in Britain:
Earthquakes occur by nature, are uncontrolled and cannot be stopped by human intervention. These are linked to the historical events of geology buried within the earth layers. There are some evidences of the faults over the earth surface and can be realized by the field specialists (geologists) while some proofs remain invisible hundreds of kilometres deep down the earth surface and this is where the earthquakes are most likely to take place. (British Geological Survey, 2014)
The factors that instigate earthquakes in UK are not transparent yet but, the main reasons behind earthquake occurrences are assumed to be the movement of the tectonic plates and resultant uplift caused by the melting of ice sheets that covered many parts of Britain about more than 1000 years back. (British Geological Survey, 2014)

1.5. Research Objectives
Aims and objectives of this research include finding answer to the following questions:
When the earthquake occurs, how the NI-TI alloy bars affect the shear resistance of the shear wall?
How the number, the length, the width and the position of bars influence the resistance of the shear wall?
1.6. Dissertation Structure:
Section 1- Background: In this section, various sub-sections will be included. Background information will be over-viewed explaining the occurrence of earthquakes in the world with a look at the historical seismic events in UK. Furthermore, the know-how of and the utilization of the concept of shape memory alloy as innovative structural materials will be reviewed.
The discussion will further go on to the present day applications of Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) in civil construction and then more pointedly as reinforcement in timber shear wall panels. This will include the knowledge of past and current work in the subject area both in the UK and world-wide. This section will also present the research objectives.