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英国利物浦希望大学论文代写:文化

文化,根据霍夫斯泰德的特征区分一组人从另一个。这些特征可以从宗教、种族、语言、民族、国家、性别、职业和组织(Hofstede)。一个人的社会环境,形成了后来被称为他的文化的某些特征。他周围的人,他知道他会,因为他早期的生活,教育,朋友,等等,每个人都参与了这一文化的形成(Hofstede)。文化标志着一个人的价值观,规范,信仰,行为,动机,意图和他的所有特征之间的差异的原因。同样,民族文化可以被定义为那些特征或价值,区分从另一个国家的人(扬特,2006)。这些值可以分为5大类:权力距离、个人主义与集体主义、男性化、女性化、不确定性规避和结合面和关系学。权力距离指的是什么程度的社会弱势成员接受权力分配不均(扬特,2006)。个人主义是片面的或自治的,而集体主义是融入群体的程度。男性或女性是指性别和不确定性规避角色之间的分布看任何不可接受的条件或任何歧义的社会的宽容(扬特,2006)。儒家强调五个关系的责任是最重要的。这些是父子之间,统治者与主体,夫妻,兄弟,兄弟和朋友的朋友。面孔基本上是自我概念的概念。中国人希望其他人认为他们的高度和轮廓(朱和麦克纳,2007)。他们希望看到他们在对方面前有一个强大的形象。Guanxi是一个长期的意义关系,是中国高度重视。民族文化价值观念难以改变,需要很多代人去改变。

英国利物浦希望大学论文代写:文化

Cultures, according to Hofstede, are those characteristics which differentiates one group of people from another. These characteristics can be in terms of religion, ethnicity, language, nations, countries, genders, occupations and organizations (Hofstede). A person develops certain characteristics which later are called as his culture by his social environment. His surroundings, his people, knowledge that he gets since his early life time, education, mates, etc, everyone is involved in the formation of this culture (Hofstede). Culture marks out the reason of differences between a person’s values, norms, beliefs, behaviors, motivations, intentions and all his traits. Same way, national culture can be defined as those characteristics or values that distinguish people of one nation from another (Jandt, 2006). These values can be categorized into 5 main categories that are power distance, individualism or collectivism, masculinity or femininity, uncertainty avoidance and Confucianism incorporating face and guanxi. Power distance refers to what extent the less powerful members of society accept the unequal distribution of power (Jandt, 2006). Individualism is being one-sided or autonomous whereas collectivism is the degree of integration into groups. Masculinity or femininity refers to the distribution of roles between genders and uncertainty avoidance looks at the society’s tolerance for any unacceptable condition or any ambiguity (Jandt, 2006). Confucianism emphasizes on the responsibilities between five relationships as being most important. These are between father and son, ruler and subject, husband and wife, brother to brother and friend to friend. Face is basically the concept of self-image. Chinese people want others to consider them of high caliber and profile (Zhu & McKenna, 2007). They want to see them having a strong and good image in front of the other party. Guanxi is a term meaning relationships which are highly valued by Chinese. National cultural values are hard to change and it takes many generations to change them.