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英国论文reference格式的解析汇总

弗洛伊德认为灭那托斯和厄洛斯是相互交织的。走向死亡的驱动力是显而易见的,无论是通过防卫向外投射,还是带有色情色彩。在那里,霍珀的一幅画,一幅摄影式的描绘,唤起了弗洛伊德提到的,也许有些离奇的经历。今天,这些被掩盖为死亡驱动的表现,进一步带有色情的暗示。一位身穿白色透明连衣裙的年轻女士站在纽约城市公寓大楼里,引人注目地站着,形成了花岗岩门廊(贝尔2015)。这一场景不断地让观众想起《梯度》(Gradiva, 2006),弗洛伊德分析的身体幻影。这条白色的裙子把内饰巧妙地放在了最前面,并以最暗的黑色调凸显出来。这代表着死亡,不仅以其色情的形式,而且以其最暴力的形式。

可能除了建筑元素的重复和黑色运用的超现实主义之外,时间的重复性是无法描述的。从这篇文章的角度来看,可以说霍珀的绘画可以从死亡驱动相关的诡异表面来阐释(Delillo 1992)。霍珀照片中所谓的“死亡驱动”形象,有时也带有空洞的视觉效果。正如大卫·安费所言,有很多艺术家认为舞台是空的。他认为,我们几乎不可能忽视“虚空”具有象征意义的能力。在他的最后一张照片,即两个喜剧演员,很明显,一个长期应有的表演终于形成了物化。

Freud was of the notion that Thanatos and Eros are intertwined amongst themselves. The drive towards death is apparent either when projected in an outward manner through defence or erotically tinged. There a painting by Hopper, a photographic depiction that evokes, perhaps somewhat uncanny experiences mentioned by Freud. Today, these are glossed as a death drive manifestation that further is tinged with a hint of eroticism. A young lady standing in a white sheer dress invitingly stands in the city apartment building in New York formed into a granite portico (Bell 2015). This scene consistently reminds the viewer of Gradiva’s, (2006), bodily apparitions as analysed by Freud. The white dress brilliantly puts the interior to the forefront and is highlighted by the darkest shade of black. This represents death, not only in its erotic form but also in its most violent forms.
The repetitive temporality cannot be depicted, perhaps except in the architectural elements repetition and there is surrealism in the black colour used. From the perspective of this essay, it can be said that the paintings of Hopper can be elucidated with regard to death drive related uncanny surfacing (Delillo 1992). What is known as death drive figuration in Hopper’s photographs at times also takes the visualization of void. There are various examples of artists who view the empty stage as remarked by David Anfam. He argued that it is almost impossible to ignore that void has a symbolic capability. In the last photograph taken by him namely, Two Comedians, it is evident that a performance long due finally has formed into materialization.


英国论文reference格式 的解析汇总

其他一些评论家也注意到了霍珀作品中普遍存在的死亡主题。Hollander(2003)甚至承认火车车厢的劣等是无限死亡的标志。根据弗洛伊德的观点,这里所关注的不仅是死亡被视为一个主题,而且霍珀的作品唤起了人们对死亡的不安冲动,并对《旁观者》(Dufresne 2007)中神秘生产的视角做出了贡献。

此外,即使在文章中没有提到,在他的书,“超越快乐的原则”,是对死亡的驱动,有一个恶魔的外观和凌驾于快乐的原则。弗洛伊德关于驾驶的理论是出了名的模糊。然而,可以确定的是,它是通过观察炮弹震动士兵而产生的。这一观点反映了士兵经常经历死亡,其中士兵反复出现在创伤经历中(Eagleton 2005)。这样观察了弗洛伊德认为开车去寻求快乐只包括有限的本能的一部分,通常与建立伟大的统一性和结合在一起而死亡左思右想推动取消连接dis-assimilating和破坏,导致最终减少复杂的有机功能无机状态。从这个角度来看,很明显,死亡驱力只是以防御的形式出现,或者以攻击的形式出现。无论如何,死亡驱动的形式,它只是通过摄影可视化来阐明自己,这一点在本节的讨论中很明显。

Several other critics have also observed death theme prevalent in the works of Hopper. It is even admitted by Hollander, (2003), that train carriage inferiority as a sign of limitless death. The concern here according to Freud is not only with death taken as a subject matter, but however with Hopper’s work that evokes disturbing drive towards death along with contribution to a perspective of uncanny production within the spectator (Dufresne 2007).
Furthermore even not mentioned in the essay, in his book, “Beyond the pleasure principle”, it is the drive towards death that has a demonic appearance and overriding the principle of pleasure. The formulation of Freud with regard to drive is obscure notoriously. However, what is clear is that it was prompted through observations shell shocking soldiers. This view represented the sighting that soldiers often experience death in which soldiers are repeatedly represented in a traumatic experience (Eagleton 2005). Such observations have led Freud to conclude that drives to seek pleasure are inclusive of only limited instinctive portions that commonly have to do with establishment of great unities and bind together while endeavouring death drive for undoing connections for dis-assimilating and destroying, leading towards reducing eventually complicated organic features into their inorganic states. From this perspective, it is apparent that death drive is only making itself appear either in defence form or as an aggressive form. No matter what, the form of death drive, it simply elucidates itself through photographic visualization as evident from the discussion in this section.