The Constructivists theory believes that humans have an ability to construct knowledge in their minds irrespective of the punishment and reward behaviour. They do this by problem solving and discovery. A Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget stated that human development was in essence progressive stages of cognitive development. The stages start with infancy and terminate with adulthood. At each stage of their development the person will construct meaning of their lives, their learning processes and more because of external stimuli. Constructivism is not seen as a purely idealistic method and unlike behaviourism focuses more on mental constructions. Papert the inventor of LOGO, a programming tool for children opines that children have a natural curiosity, where they perceive things and construct their own world based on those things. Educational system attempted to formalize this world, creating margins which made children only passive recipients who could no longer construct their own knowledge (Papert, 1993).
Some examples such as the below will be discussed in this section:
To prepare for the topic of milk production in a constructivist environment, the teacher organizes a field trip to the local dairy. He or she coordinates the field trip with the cafeteria milk delivery so the children can visit the delivery truck the following morning. The day before the field trip, the children and teacher discuss milk production. Personal experiences are collected and hypotheses are formulated regarding the field trip. The children make a list of items to find in the dairy and draw pictures of farmers and their cows. The children spend the following day visiting the dairy. Each child carries a clipboard to record information. The teachers photograph the tour and write down the children’s verbal reflections. The children here have constructed their own knowledge.