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英国雪菲尔哈伦大学论文代写:样本分配

范围经济可以定义为企业在提供多种产品而不是专门从事制造、生产或交付单一产品或服务时所面临的成本优势。范围经济来源于投入的分配或联合部署,并导致单位成本的减少。范围经济通常与单位成本在产出上升时向下移动的事实相联系。(1996;普赖拉粉红2006)。

在制药行业,规模经济是非常重要的,因为它降低了研究和开发成本的主要程度,因为研发是制药工业必须面对的主要成本。例如疾病如感冒和发烧,也用于感冒和流感的药物如对乙酰氨基酚、盐酸去氧肾上腺素、Dextromethorphan hydrobromide制造类似的化学品等。

规模经济:

规模经济可以定义为在总产出增加时降低平均生产成本的因素。这些公司期待着生产更多的商品和服务,从而相对降低单位或可变成本,这有助于公司降低生产成本,并享有与竞争对手相比的竞争优势。例如,在医药企业的研发中是非常关键的,但这种药物的制造成本却是巨大的。因此,近年来许多制药公司合并,因为这些公司希望将其研发支出分配给更多的商品和服务。

输出不能达到规模不经济现象,也许原材料、劳动力和资本(生产要素)应有效地使用。

英国雪菲尔哈伦大学论文代写:样本分配

Economies of scope can be defined as the cost advantages that are faced by the firms when they prefer to provide a variety of products instead of specializing in the manufacturing, production or delivering of a sole product or service. Economies of scope arise from the allocation or joint deployment of inputs and lead to lessening in per unit costs. Economy of scope is usually linked to the fact in which per unit cost moves downwards when the output rises. (Given 1996; Preyra & Pink 2006).

In case of pharmaceutical industries, the economies of scale are very important as it reduces a major degree of research and development cost, as R&D is the major cost that pharmaceutical industry has to face. For example for illness like cold and fever, there are similar chemicals used in manufacturing of  medicines for cold and flu such as Acetaminophen, Phenylephrine hydrochloride, Dextromethorphan hydrobromide, etc.

Economies of Scale:

Economies of scale can be defined as the factor that can reduce average cost of production when the overall output increases. The companies look forward for producing a larger amount of goods and service, which relatively reduce the per unit or variable cost, which helps the company to reduce its cost of production and enjoys the competitive advantage over the rivals. For example, in the pharmaceutical business Research and Development is very crucial, but the cost of manufacturing the drug is vast and mounting. Therefore a number of pharmaceutical companies have merge in recent years because of the companies’ desire to distribute their R&D disbursement over a larger volume of goods and services.

The output should not reach the diseconomies of scale and perhaps raw materials, labour and capital (all the factors of production) should be used efficiently and effectively.