Assignment First

英国作业代写:家庭收入的数据和定量分析

该分析使用了1996年家庭支出数据,这些数据来自ODESI。表1显示了分析中使用的所有变量及其定义。这里使用的因变量是用于娱乐和相关活动的费用。总共有29个变量在调查中被确定为与娱乐活动支出相关的变量。这些变量包括在娱乐车辆上的花费,像舞台剧这样的视觉娱乐,像音乐系统这样的音频娱乐,像报纸和杂志这样的其他娱乐系统,等等。家庭的收入是由户主及其配偶的税后收入的总和获得的。那些与负收入相关的观察被过滤掉了,因为负收入既没有经济意义,也没有计量经济学意义。性别“性别”变量对男性受访者的值为1。变量“educ”的数值从0到16不等,取决于受访者接受教育的年限。可变年龄取受访者所属年龄组的平均值。受访者的婚姻状况包括在变量“marstat”中,该变量对已婚受访者的值为1。属于农村地区的被调查者采用变量“rural”,该变量为农村被调查者取1。变量“社会援助”对于没有接受援助的成员的家庭取0,对于家中至少有一名成员接受政府社会援助的家庭取1。有九个虚拟变量对应于加拿大的九个省。虚拟变量规则规定,对于n个类别,取n-1个虚拟变量,使变量不线性相关(Gujarati & Sangeetha, 2003)。

The analysis uses the household expenditure data for the year 1996 as taken from ODESI. Table 1 shows all the variables used in the analysis and their definitions. The dependent variable used here is the expenses on recreational and related activities. In total, twenty nine variables in the survey were identified as the ones relevant to expenses on recreational activities. These variables include expenses in recreational vehicles, visual recreations like stage plays, audio recreations like music systems, other recreational systems like newspaper and magazines and so on. The income of the household is obtained by taking a sum of the income after tax of the household head and his or her spouse. Those observations which corresponded to negative income have been filtered out, as negative income makes no economic sense or econometrical sense. The variable on gender “sex” takes a value of 1 for male respondents. The variable “educ” takes numeric values ranging from 0 to 16 depending on the number of years of education taken by the respondents. The variable age takes the mean of the age group the respondents belong to. The marital status of the respondent is covered in the variable “marstat” which takes a value of 1 for married respondents. The respondents belonging to rural areas are taken in the variable “rural” which takes a value 1 for rural respondents. The variable “social assistance” takes a value of 0 for those households that have no member that receives assistance and takes a value of 1 for those households which have at least one member in the household that receive social assistance from the government. There are nine dummy variables corresponding to nine provinces of Canada. The rule of dummy variables states that for n categories n-1 dummy variables are taken so that the variables do not get linearly dependent (Gujarati & Sangeetha, 2003).


英国作业代写 :家庭收入的数据和定量分析

收入对数系数为1.119,在1%的显著性水平下具有统计学意义。这意味着,对于收入日志中的单位增长,当所有其他变量保持不变时,家庭娱乐支出日志增加了1.119。性别系数为负,说明加拿大女性比男性更倾向于娱乐活动。教育系数也为负,在5%的显著性水平上显著。这意味着,一个单位的教育增加,日志的娱乐支出可能减少0.009。社会救助系数也为负。由于该变量对接受社会援助的家庭取的值为1,因此负系数意味着这些家庭从事娱乐活动的可能性较小。在省级虚拟变量中,只有与魁北克、萨斯喀彻温省和不列颠哥伦比亚省对应的假人具有显著性。这里的基本类别是安大略。由于魁北克的系数是负的,魁北克人在这类活动上的花费比安大略人要少。另一方面,来自萨斯喀彻温省和不列颠哥伦比亚省的人更有可能这样做。农村家庭的消费系数为负,这意味着这些家庭在休闲活动上的支出预计会减少。年龄系数为-0.018,这意味着加拿大人的年龄每增加一个单位,娱乐支出的日志预计会减少0.018。

对于单位收入增长日志,娱乐活动支出增长日志大于1。这意味着加拿大人更喜欢在娱乐活动上花钱。然而,这种愿望仅限于某些领域。像农村地区不花很多钱在娱乐活动,一些省份的人也是如此。需要有一个适当的计划来刺激这些开支。这是重要的,因为在这类活动中的支出导致更好的生活质量,从而导致更好的人类生产力。由于年龄对娱乐消费有负面影响,需要为老年人开发专门的娱乐渠道。

The coefficient of log of income is 1.119 and is statistically significant at 1% level of significance. This means that for a unit increase in the log of income, the log of recreational expenditures in the household increases by 1.119 when all other variables are held constant. The coefficient of sex is negative implying that females are more inclined towards recreational activities than males in Canada. The coefficient of education is also negative and is significant at 5% level of significance.This implies that for a unit increase in the education, the log of recreational expenditures is likely to reduce by 0.009. The coefficient of social assistance is also negative. Since the variable takes a value of 1 for the households which receive social assistance, the negative coefficient implies that such families are less likely to engage much in recreational activities. Among the provincial dummy variables only the dummies corresponding to Quebec, Saskatchewan and British Columbia are significant. The base category here is Ontario. Since the coefficient of Quebec is negative, the people of Quebec are less likely to spend on such activities as compared to Ontario. On the other hand, people from Saskatchewan and British Columbia are more likely to do so. The coefficient of rural households is negative, implying that these households are expected to spend less on recreational activities. The coefficient of age is -0.018 which implies that for a unit increase in the age of the Canadians, the log of recreational expenses is expected to decline by 0.018.
For a unit increase in log of income, the increase in log of expenses on recreational activities is more than 1. This means that the people in Canada prefer spending on recreational activities. However, the desire is limited to certain areas. Like Rural areas do not spend much on recreational activities and so do people of certain provinces. There needs to be a program in place to stimulate such expenses. It is important because expenditure in such activities leads to a better quality of life which in turn leads to better human productivity. Since age has a negative effect on recreational expenses, dedicated recreational avenues need to be developed for people of higher ages.