# 英国作业代写：家庭收入的数据和定量分析

The analysis uses the household expenditure data for the year 1996 as taken from ODESI. Table 1 shows all the variables used in the analysis and their definitions. The dependent variable used here is the expenses on recreational and related activities. In total, twenty nine variables in the survey were identified as the ones relevant to expenses on recreational activities. These variables include expenses in recreational vehicles, visual recreations like stage plays, audio recreations like music systems, other recreational systems like newspaper and magazines and so on. The income of the household is obtained by taking a sum of the income after tax of the household head and his or her spouse. Those observations which corresponded to negative income have been filtered out, as negative income makes no economic sense or econometrical sense. The variable on gender “sex” takes a value of 1 for male respondents. The variable “educ” takes numeric values ranging from 0 to 16 depending on the number of years of education taken by the respondents. The variable age takes the mean of the age group the respondents belong to. The marital status of the respondent is covered in the variable “marstat” which takes a value of 1 for married respondents. The respondents belonging to rural areas are taken in the variable “rural” which takes a value 1 for rural respondents. The variable “social assistance” takes a value of 0 for those households that have no member that receives assistance and takes a value of 1 for those households which have at least one member in the household that receive social assistance from the government. There are nine dummy variables corresponding to nine provinces of Canada. The rule of dummy variables states that for n categories n-1 dummy variables are taken so that the variables do not get linearly dependent (Gujarati & Sangeetha, 2003).

The coefficient of log of income is 1.119 and is statistically significant at 1% level of significance. This means that for a unit increase in the log of income, the log of recreational expenditures in the household increases by 1.119 when all other variables are held constant. The coefficient of sex is negative implying that females are more inclined towards recreational activities than males in Canada. The coefficient of education is also negative and is significant at 5% level of significance.This implies that for a unit increase in the education, the log of recreational expenditures is likely to reduce by 0.009. The coefficient of social assistance is also negative. Since the variable takes a value of 1 for the households which receive social assistance, the negative coefficient implies that such families are less likely to engage much in recreational activities. Among the provincial dummy variables only the dummies corresponding to Quebec, Saskatchewan and British Columbia are significant. The base category here is Ontario. Since the coefficient of Quebec is negative, the people of Quebec are less likely to spend on such activities as compared to Ontario. On the other hand, people from Saskatchewan and British Columbia are more likely to do so. The coefficient of rural households is negative, implying that these households are expected to spend less on recreational activities. The coefficient of age is -0.018 which implies that for a unit increase in the age of the Canadians, the log of recreational expenses is expected to decline by 0.018.
For a unit increase in log of income, the increase in log of expenses on recreational activities is more than 1. This means that the people in Canada prefer spending on recreational activities. However, the desire is limited to certain areas. Like Rural areas do not spend much on recreational activities and so do people of certain provinces. There needs to be a program in place to stimulate such expenses. It is important because expenditure in such activities leads to a better quality of life which in turn leads to better human productivity. Since age has a negative effect on recreational expenses, dedicated recreational avenues need to be developed for people of higher ages.

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