Ethical issues: Though stem cell research seems a potential alternative to xenografting yet it also raises some social and ethical issues (Evans, 2005, p. 663-7). Stem cells obtained from the adult, umbilical cord or placenta are not debated as much as human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) because construction of hESCs requires destruction of human embryo. Hence hSECs technology raises question of rights of protection embryo.
Stem cells derived from the adult, umbilical cord or placenta are not subject to the same ethical debates as those surrounding hESCs because obtaining them does not rely on the destruction of human embryos. Ethical issues surrounding the use of adult, umbilical cord or placental stem cells are focused on the process of informed consent and whether or not these cells should be available as a commercial commodity. However, New Zealand has regulation over the use of human embryo in research. According to HART act human embryo has limited moral rights.
Conclusion: The study of stem cells will help us to understand the developmental processes and mechanism underlying many diseases. It seems to be a promising technology for the treatment of many clinical conditions such as cancer, foetal developmental abnormalities and many genetic disorders. It can also be proved a superior technology over xenotransplantation.