Assignment First

作業代寫:勞動力過剩造成的失業情況

然而,即使工資處於均衡狀態,人口遷移也不會自然停止。人們仍然出於社會動機搬到城市地區,比如更好地獲得生活設施。哈裏斯-托達羅模型只考慮了經濟動機,比如更高的工資或更好的工作,同時考慮了移民的影響。從本質上講,他們假設城市和農村之間的生活方式是相同的,如果不是相同的話。但是,在現實生活中,城市居民和農村居民的生活方式存在著差距。城市居民有更好的基礎設施、更好的醫療設施、更好的通訊設施、更好的水資源、更好的電力等。相反,發展中國家的農村地區被剝奪了這些設施的大部分。他們有糟糕的道路,不那麽好的交通和通訊工具,沒有裝備的醫院等等。因此,移民並不僅僅基於經濟動機。它還受到社會動機的驅動,其中最重要的是渴望過上更好的生活。哈裏斯-托達羅模型未能解釋這種願望。然而,它為分析人們從一個地方到另一個地方的流動奠定了基礎。

此外,農民工沒有意識到的是,即使是在城市地區,勞動力過剩也會造成類似的情況,事實上有時甚至比他們過去在農村地區的情況更糟。由於城市地區勞動力負擔過重,工資水平下降,直至達到均衡,即勞動力需求和勞動力供給穩定在一個合適的工資水平。這一工資率往往如此之低,以至於城市地區的食物成為一個問題,尤其是考慮到他們的生活成本更高。較高的生活成本意味著移民不得不在食物、衣服和住所上花費更多,因此他們的凈收入較少,而且情況往往會變得更糟。這些移民最終住在貧民窟裏,那裏的基礎設施更差。

然而,在大多數情況下,工資並不像人們在自由市場中預期的那樣可以自由上下浮動。由於工會或政府立法的原因,工資通常有一個下限。這就是全球經濟的前景。為了追求更好的生活方式,法律或工會試圖強迫工人把工資提高到工人可以承受的水平。在固定最低工資的情況下,面對這種情況,當勞動力供應增加時,公司不準備支付與之不符的工資。因此,需求下降,使市場再次達到平衡,從而減少對勞動力的需求。這就導致了經濟中的失業。


作業代寫 :勞動力過剩造成的失業情況

However, even when the wages are in equilibrium, the migration does not stop naturally. People still move to urban areas driven by social motives like better access to living facilities. The Harris-Todaro model takes into account only the economic motives like better wages or better jobs while considering the effect of migration. In essence, they have assumed that the lifestyle between the urban and rural areas is equivalent, if not the same. But, in reality, there exists a gap between the kind of life an urban resident leads and a rural resident leads. Urban people have better access to infrastructure, better healthcare facilities, better communication facilities, improved access to water resources, improved access to electricity, and so on. On the contrary, rural areas in developing countries are deprived of most of these facilities. They have poor roads, not so good means of transportation and communication, unequipped hospitals and so on. So, the migration does not occur solely based on economic motives. It is also driven by social motives, the most important of them being the desire to lead a better life. What the Harris-Todaro model fails to account for is this desire. However, it lays the basics for the analysis of movement of people from one place to another.
Furthermore, what the migrants don’t realise is that an excess of labour even in the urban areas creates a situation which is similar to the one, in fact sometimes worse than the one they used to have in the rural areas. Due to over-burden of labour in the urban areas, the wage declines until there is equilibrium i.e. the demand of labour and supply of labour stabilise at a suitable wage rate. This wage rate often gets so low that sustenance in the urban areas becomes a problem particularly given the fact that they have a higher cost of living. A higher cost of living implies that the migrants have to spend more on food, clothes and shelter due to which they have lesser net income and often the situation gets worse. The migrants end up staying in slums with worse access to basic facilities.
Most of the times however, the wage is not as free to slide up and down the scale as one would expect in a free market. Either due to trade unions or due to government legislations, the wages usually have a lower bound. This is where the global economy comes into picture. In a pursuit to ensuring a better lifestyle, the legislations or trade unions try to force the wage to a level which is sustainable for the workers. In the face of such a situation, with minimum wage fixed, when there is a higher supply of labour, the firms are not ready to pay wages which do not conform to it. So, the demand declines so that the market again reaches an equilibrium thereby reducing the need of labour. This, leads to unemployment in the economy.