Assignment First


2008 经济衰退已经不仅影响国家的经济也导致了社会、商业生活的许多变化,由人民和更多的消费。市场经济通常以定期波动为特征,这些都是市场周期的一部分。有一个初级阶段叫做扩张期,然后是衰退期,然后是恢复期.。在扩张阶段的背景下,市场经济将呈现巨大的增长和就业趋势的增加。随着时间的推移,经济将走向一个转折点,这通常发生在所谓的高峰之后.。衰退阶段可能持续数月甚至更长时间,其特点是就业率下降或消费减少,短期内经济运行和产出下降.。在达到低谷点后,经济将慢慢恢复到长期增长。在2008的经济衰退的情况下,衰退的影响感觉更长,它是通过引入财政和货币政策,美国能够使国家进入复苏状态。截至2014,美国经济因其财政和货币政策而得到了较好的增长,GDP增长了百分之4(哈丁,1)。百分之4增加支持,本文主张,财政和货币政策,用来模拟美国经济工作;但是也有一些担忧的政策,在政策实施的挑战,因为美国经济与这些纳入重要讨论过。




IEconomic recession of 2008 is seen to have affected not only the economy of the country but also has led to many changes in social, business life, consumptions by the people and more. Market economies are usually characterised by regular fluctuations, these are part of the regular market cycle. There is a primary phase which is called the expansion phase; then there is a recession phase and then there is a recovery phase. In the context of the expansion phase, the market economy will show enormous growth and increased employment trends. Over time the economy will move towards a turning point, this usually happens after what is called a peak. The recession phase can last for months or even more and is characterized by the decrease in employment rates or by reduced consumption, and in short lower economic  movements and output. After reaching the trough point, the economy will slowly recover back to a longer term growth. In the case of the economic recession of 2008, the effects of recession were felt longer, and it was through introducing fiscal and monetary policies that the United States was able to bring the country into the recovery state. As of 2014, the US economy is seen to report a better growth as a result of its fiscal and monetary policies and it has a 4 percent increase in its GDP (Harding, 2014). The 4 percent increase supports the claims that this essay makes, that the fiscal and monetary policies that were used to simulate the US economy were working; however there are some concerns in the policies and there were challenges in implementation of the policies because of the US economy and these are brought into critical discussion too.

U.S Fiscal Policy

The US recession starting in 2008 led to a shrinking of economy, with consumer spending decreasing and housing expenditures. GDP dropped by around 3.9 percent in 2008 (Willis, 2009). With consumers exercising more caution, the economy declined even more, characterized by the lowering of wages, people dropping out of jobs and the only positive consequence was that the Government savings rate was increased. Revisions were made to the fiscal and the monetary policy in order to move the economy into a recovery period. A fiscal policy is where changes are made in the way tax policies are created and implemented and the spending of the federal Government might be contracted or increased based on whether the economy is in recession or is at deficit spending.